Preface Acknowledgements Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 URLs References




Web Multimedia Basics *


The MIME System *

Plug-ins/Helpers *


Plain Text *

Conversion of Material *



When and Why to Use Each *

Why Reinvent the Wheel? *

Beware the Bells and Whistles *


The Hyperlink Tags *

The Anchor Tag *

The Name Attribute *

The HREF Attribute *


The PowerPoint Lecture *

The Acrobat .pdf File *

Choosing Formats *


Downloading (Server to Client) *

Uploading (Client to Server) *

Push versus Pull *



URLs *




Web Multimedia Basics



When first introduced, Andreessen's Mosaic {U06.01} browser brought forth an appreciation for the rich mixture of text and graphics that could be achieved using the Web. Designing Web materials is exciting. Ordinary people create some rather extraordinary media with the help of powerful computer application tools. Designing an online course involves focusing on many aspects of instruction. This chapter will introduce some elements of Web-design that are specific to teaching. A teacher needs to understand how things are accomplished on the Web to be able to design good materials.



The work of a browser includes transferring files. Browsers most often use the hypertext transfer protocol, signaled by the "http://" in the URL. A copy of the file is transferred from the server to the client. This copy is stored in a folder called the cache. While in your browser, try emptying the cache (in Netscape, Edit, Preferences, Advanced, Cache, click on Empty Disk Cache and then OK). With both the browser window and a window displaying the contents of the cache visible, access a few Web pages. Watch your cache fill!


Figure 6.01. Appearance of the Netscape "Cache "folder. This folder contains the file "CCache log." When this folder is emptied except for the log, and the URL "http://dwb.unl.edu"{U06.02} is accessed, seven additional files appear in this cache. [For the technically inclined, there are four HTML files: one sets up two frames, one fills the upper frame, one fills the lower frame, and the fourth is generated as a base file – and is otherwise very similar to the file for the lower frame. There are three 'GIF' images: a clickable map for the top frame, an animated molecule for the top frame, and the National Science Foundation logo for the bottom frame.]


The MIME System

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an extension to the traditional Internet mail protocol that permits communication of multimedia electronic mail [Graham, 1996, pp. 619-627]. You probably have noticed extensions on your own computer, especially when working in the Windows platform. Those extensions (generally two, three or four letters) at the end of file names tell your computer that a file is plain text (.txt), an Excel spreadsheet (.xls), or some other format. Those extensions eliminate the need to choose which application to use every time a file is opened.

Browser software uses extensions to determine how to use a file appropriately. When you contact a site by accessing the URL, the server sends back files. The MIME extension system provides your computer (the client) with information from the server about the type of file being sent.

Because MIME is a standardized scheme, it permits browser software to determine what to do with a file. The file is assigned an extension written as a period (or dot) and a few letters. Files ending in .html or .htm, for example, are interpreted as being HTML. Files ending in .gif are GIF image files, while those ending in .jpg or .jpeg are JPEG images.

In other cases, and especially with multimedia files, the browser may make use of helper applications and/or plug-ins. Different computer platforms (UNIX, Windows, Macintosh) handle MIME in slightly different ways, but with much the same effect. The extensions are defined in document RFC (Request for Comment) 1521 {U06.03}.


Plug-ins and Helpers consist of computer code that complements a browser program and extends its capabilities. Plug-ins are intended to support specific types of data and allow clients on varying platforms to view the data. The plug-ins help eliminate much of the potential for cross-platform problems. Most client plug-ins are available without cost via the Internet. (In many cases, use of the software which creates the data requires purchase of a developer version of the plug-in or helper.)

Figure 6.02. Identifying helpers and plug-ins. This or a similar screen is available by choosing Edit, Preferences, Navigator, Applications in Netscape (or Edit, Preferences, Receiving Files, File Helper in Internet Explorer.) By selecting the Description, the File type details may be quickly viewed. Edit may be used to reassign the file type to a different application.


By using this strategy, many specialized features can be incorporated with the browser. For example, chemists have considerable interest in displaying molecular structures. Typical users are not likely to share this interest. Because a plug-in architecture is used for the browser, computer programmers working for chemists are able to piggy back their special needs on the overall power of the browser application. Several companies (e.g., Cambridge Soft {U06.04}, MDL {U06.05}) have developed plug-ins for browser-based manipulation of files for chemical structures.


Figure 6.03. Choosing Edit for one of the helpers (in this case, Mathematica 2.2 Notebook) allows suffixes to be entered/edited, and an application or plug-in chosen to assist the browser by handling the files involved.


Helper applications and plug-ins can be downloaded by students from the Web. When you request that your students use a specific plug-in, you may want to have this software available locally to facilitate their access. These local sources must meet copyright restrictions.



Plain Text

After speech, text is the most important medium of the human condition. For scientists and engineers, it may be the most important. Scientists communicate in writing. Most professionals communicate in writing. As a teacher, you may be providing enormous amounts of text material for your students. Early in decisions about your course, you need to decide how you will handle text.

Paper is still a good medium for teachers; it is still the easiest text format to read in bed or on a park bench. Many things students are expected to learn require either a great deal of concentrated study, or a great deal of reading. Paper is a good medium in both of these situations because of portability. Don't forget paper. Don't forget books. Experience shows that students often print Web materials for study.

Conversion of Material

Material may be prepared for the Web in a variety of ways. Existing text which is in digital form usually can be converted into Web-useful formats by simple cut and paste procedures. If text material that is available only as print on paper is "clean" it can be converted to digital with a scanner and optical character recognition (OCR) software packages (i.e., TextBridge {U06.07}). However, when the text is handwritten or messy, or when small amounts of text are involved, retyping may be the best way to get this material into digital form. If you plan to use copyrighted materials, acquire permission from the source.

Substantial research has been expended on understanding the legibility print [Bloodsworth, 1993], and those who create either paper or electronic print documents are well-advised to become aware of the pertinent issues.

New text should be created using a word processing program, or some form of authoring software. Authoring software, especially when it presents the pages as they will appear in a browser, (WYSIWYG, what you see is what you get), provides a way to produce both text materials and other forms of media embedded in the text. With WYSIWYG, conversion of text materials to the Web or creation of text materials for the Web is rapidly becoming a relatively simple process.


Figure 6.04. Screen shot from Dreamweaver {U06.07}. The window at the left is the view of the Web page, the window at the right is the source of the page, and the window at the bottom is an example of a 'properties' window.


Where in the past an author had to learn a great deal about HTML in order to insert the appropriate HTML tags (a form of encoding that tells the browser application how to display the data), now most or all of these tags can be automatically inserted using a Web-friendly wordprocessing application, browser-embedded applications such as Netscape's Composer, or a high-power WYSIWYG application such as Dreamweaver (Figure 6.04) or Adobe GoLive. The user keys (or pastes) in the desired text and formats it by methods similar to standard wordprocessing and paint programs.

There has been an evolution in the creation of HTML files. When the first edition of this book appeared, the majority of HTML code was being written with text editors or HTML editors; the tags had to be keyed in by hand, a fairly clumsy way to work. Computer "experts" made up the majority of HTML coders.

Shareware programs were available, or simple text editors could be used. As software specifically for creating and editing HTML began to appear, more people were learning HTML and designing their own pages. With the advent of WYSIWYG authoring software, a broader range of users came along. With each new version of such software, the need to learn the HTML tags decreases, and the sophistication of what the software can accomplish increases. Even elementary school children can now design for the Web. Designing becomes more a matter of creation and less a job of implementation; the slow step becomes thinking about how you want the screen to look.

Ultimately, when you have numerous materials at a site, you may need to know enough about HTML to repair or adjust code. The newer authoring software versions are also becoming very adept at assisting in site management.

As one might suspect, the demands for delivery of more and more sophisticated pages have placed a strain on the original designs. HTML, actually derived from a more generalized markup language called SGML, is expected to give way to still another language – XML {U06.08}. The third edition of this book is likely to be produced in XML.

It is often important that files teachers provide for their students via the Web appear as they were intended. That's not always as easy as you might expect in Web publishing. (See figure 6.05.) Over the Web, things usually look similar from one screen to another – but they may not necessarily appear identical. Making the learner's screen look like the teacher's screen presents a problem. Anyone who has extensively exchanged files by e-mail has probably come up against files that were problematic. Macintosh files do not always convert easily to be viewed on a Windows machine, and some Windows files cannot be sent easily to some Macintoshes. Even transfers within one platform can be difficult. Also, files created in a newer version often will not open in an older version of an application.


Figure 6.05. Two views of an HTML-tagged file opened with the Netscape Navigator browser. The views differ in the font type setting chosen by the user. On the Web, you must work very hard to control exactly what the user sees. Most often, users don't see exactly the same screens as the author because of differing font and/or background color defaults.


The appearance of text on the Web is controlled by "marking" the text with a series of tags as seen in Figure 6.06. In fact, the files are coded in a language called HTML (hypertext markup language). With modern word processors and authoring software, these HTML tags can be produced automatically. Using HTML encoded files can eliminate most of the cross-platform and within platform problems. But even then, if the files are e-mailed, the file may not be easy to transfer. HTML files may be saved as text files and transferred in text format, then saved on the recipient's machine and opened in some form of authoring software and resaved as HTML files. (Or the file extension may be changed to HTML and the file opened directly in the browser.)


Figure 6.06. A sample of an HTML-tagged file which would create a Web-based version of the prior paragraph. A further discussion of the basic elements of HTML tags appears in Chapter 8.


When text is available on the Web, the problem of creating print copies (paper copies) is transferred from the teacher to the end user. If the student wants a print copy, the browser software can create it. The act of accessing the URL downloads the information from the teacher’s machine (the server) to the student's machine (the client.)

Be very cautious about your use of copyrighted materials. Check with your campus bookstore or a local printer (like Kinko’s). They may be able to secure copyright access for Web applications if access to your server is controlled.



The hallmark of hypertext is dynamic access to information. We classify hypertext as a type of medium to emphasize its potential. In multimedia instruction, appropriate use of hypertext is a mark of literacy. Textbooks have been highlighting new vocabulary with bold or colored text for many years. With computers, we can extend this highlighting by making the words and phrases hypertext. Clicking on hypertext can lead directly to different text (or other media) located elsewhere in the same document, or in an entirely different document, perhaps one located on a different server – with servers located around the world.

Teachers can have an interactive glossary set up so that, when new words are introduced, the user can click to obtain a definition. Traditional, unlinked text, and especially textbooks, may remain the most important medium you’ll use as a teacher. But hypertext will become an essential in your toolbox! The newer, Web-oriented software makes creation of hypertext a relatively simple matter.

This book has a glossary, references, and URL lists at the end of each chapter. The Web-site associated with this book {U06.09} provides an example of an interactive glossary and hyperlinks to URLs for a wide variety of resources.



Beyond simple hypertext, the addition of animations, movies, sounds, JavaScript, and other hypermedia can bring a site alive and help make it involving and interactive. JavaScripting within Web pages is now common to the Web. Java applications (applets) have an exciting look and feel to them. Chapters 7, 8, 15, and 16 will examine multiple forms of hypermedia which can be used to expand your site.

When and Why to Use Each

Plain, unlinked text is likely to be the very beginning of the design of your site. Articles intended for conventional reading may need little else. Before you make your text available to your students, consider adding hypertext links where they seem appropriate. Links to glossary words should appear the first time a word appears, but not every time it is used. Links to other sites may be included in the body of the text, or isolated in references at the end of the text.

The challenge is to provide adequate links without allowing those links to distract from the information to be read. Pictures and graphics, added to the text, can provide visual clues to learning. More elaborate hypermedia should be reserved for encouraging interactivity and providing dynamic examples for learning. Remember, early research results do not support the notion that special gains are attributable to hypermedia [Dillon & Gabbard, 1998].

Clearly, the benefits gained from the use of hypermedia technology in learning scenarios appear to be very limited and not in keeping with the generally euphoric reaction to this technology in the professional arena.
Dillon & Gabbard, 1998

The use of hypertext is an open issue. Spiro et al. {U06.10} point out that knowledge in the Web world is ill-structured, and that developing materials that help learners deal with this knowledge effectively remains a challenge.


Why Reinvent the Wheel?

Rather than write materials each time you need them for your students, search the Web to see if appropriate material already is available. If the material is not quite what is needed, it may help in the design of new material. Web authors usually don't hide their HTML code; it can be accessed from any browser. The page can be saved and accessed using authoring software. It is often possible to figure out how the author accomplished any special effects. By saving the page to a local machine, editing and modification become possible. Be sure to save all the parts, including any images.

Copyright exists on the Web (see Chapter 19). Request permission before using any substantial amount of code or any images. If material will be used by including a link to the original site, before publishing the link, contact the site administrator. Contacting the administrator can help ensure the site is stable for your use and able to handle the additional traffic that your link might create for that site.


Beware the Bells and Whistles

As the capabilities of Web become more apparent, and the authoring of very complex pages becomes simpler, there is a temptation to fill pages with illustrations, photos, decorations, and the myriad of hypermedia. The usability of the page needs to be kept in mind. As you add graphics, keep in mind the increasing length of time to download the page. If you need to include 100 pictures, consider using hyperlinked descriptions or thumbnail versions of the pictures to minimize download time.



When you use your browser, the page you see is rendered so that the various "tags" have been implemented. It is possible to look at the text file from which that page is rendered – and view the tags. By choosing "Page Source" in the "View" menu of the browser, the HTML source can be displayed on the local screen.

It is possible to learn a great deal about HTML and JavaScripting by viewing and manipulating the code written by others, especially when done together with a basic HTML reference book such as HTML 4 for Dummies {U06.11}. To manipulate the code, it may be necessary to save the file to the local machine and open it with some form of authoring software. (The Mac versions of some browser software allow manipulation within the browser.) The source code is visible for public perusal; HTML does not provide a way to hide the code. Using large sections of code written by others may become a copyright issue.

HTML tags include formatting information for the browser about how to display the file. The tags are commands which are enclosed in the < and > symbols. The first tag in any document is <HTML>, telling the browser to begin formatting with HTML. Next there is usually a section which serves as a header to the file, called <HEAD>. Several header information tags may appear within the <HEAD> area of the document. To close the <HEAD> area, the </HEAD> tag appears. (The slash in the closing tag is used to indicate the end of material affected by the original tag.)

The header is usually followed by the <BODY> tag, indicating the beginning of the visually displayed document. Within the body of the document, a variety of tags will appear determining such things as color, spacing, font choice, font styles, and hyperlinks. At the end of the document, a closing tag will appear for both the body </BODY> and the HTML code itself </HTML>. A few HTML tags do not require a closing tag. For example, the <BR> tag causes a carriage return (line break) without creating a change in paragraph.

The Hyperlink Tags

A key idea in the HTML scheme of things is the hyperlink. Hyperlinks are accomplished through the use of anchor tags. The properties of the hyperlink are explicitly encoded in a cumbersome text string. Good authoring software allows the developer to specify several elements of the link in a "properties" dialog box, and automatically inserts the proper tags. The complete links, including the URL, file or text string (anchor) to access, and even information about how to display the information are visible in the HTML source. In the browser screen seen by the user, links are usually only evidenced by clear, but subtle, changes in the text format – colored, underlined text, or hot spots on the screen.

The links in a Web browser can bring about quite minor changes – with a link in one part of a document connecting to another part of the same document. The user clicks on a linked text string, and the screen images change, displaying a different portion of the same document. Alternatively, the links can point to documents that can be downloaded from servers literally continents away. They may be opened in the same window, or in a new one. With modern browser software, the suffixes attached to files can be used to invoke "helpers" and "plug-ins" that enable a full range of multimedia applications.

The Anchor Tag

Perhaps the most important of the "tags" in HTML is the anchor tag, <A> …</A>. Two critical attributes of links may appear within an anchor tag: names, and hrefs (the URL or file path to access the required information.)

The Name Attribute

The name attribute within an anchor tag is used to give a name to a piece of text for access via hyperlinks. (Netscape Composer uses the term "target" in place of anchor.) The name tag shown below would assign the name Baubles to the phrase "Baubles Section" at a particular location in the file so it could serve as a destination for a hypertext link. This name (sometimes called an anchor) will be located at the destination of a link.


Figure 6.07. Top: HTML file with three links. Bottom: appearance of this file as displayed in browser. The first link goes to a named place (the "Baubles Section") within the current file. The second goes to a different file, on the same or a different server. The third goes to a named portion of a different file on the same server where the second file is located.


The HREF Attribute

The HREF attribute within the anchor tag is used to indicate the URL for a hypertext link. The HREF can send the user to another point in the current document, to another document of the same server, to a document on a different server, or even to a specific point in a document on a different server. Figure 6.07 provides a few HREF attribute examples.



The PowerPoint Lecture

Many teachers, especially college teachers in large, lecture-oriented classes, have begun creating materials in the format of electronic slide programs. These generally are called presentation programs. Microsoft's PowerPoint, a part of the Microsoft Office suite of programs, is widely used. In the same way that photocopies are often called Xerox copies, lectures utilizing presentation software are often called PowerPoint lectures. PowerPoint slides have a characteristic look and feel, illustrated in Figure 6.08.


Figure 6.08. Characteristic look and feel of a PowerPoint slide. Modified screen capture from PowerPoint presentation by K, Chinn, "Optimizing PowerPoint Presentations for the World Wide Web." {U06.12}


Media services at Eastern Illinois University has Web information related to creating online PowerPoint {U06.13} presentations. Kuchler {U06.14} suggests three ways to make PowerPoint presentations available to students: using the original format, converting to HTML format, or converting to Real streaming video format. This rather scholarly Web paper makes several appropriate comparisons of these three formats. Zoll [1998] {U06.15} argues that PowerPoint formats really are not appropriate for the Web, and we tend to share that view. If you do make a classroom presentation to a group as part of your teaching, then PowerPoint makes for an excellent tool. If an existing PowerPoint presentation is your starting point, then putting that material on the Web is likely to be the least time-consuming way to go.

The Acrobat .pdf File

Students often print out files to view at a later time. There is evidence they read materials from those printed files, even ones printed from "souped-up" hypertext (where printing results in losing important information.) Hypertext files printed from browsers often do not reflect the format intended.

If formatting of the page is critical for your teaching application, Adobe Acrobat software {U06.16} can provide a workable solution. Although the software for encoding the files must be purchased, that needed to read the files, Acrobat Reader, is available without charge across the Web.

The essential tool for universal document exchange
Tired of colleagues not being able to open your documents? Frustrated by software and platform incompatibilities that destroy your documents' look and feel? You need Adobe® Acrobat® 4.0 software. It's the most reliable, efficient, and effective way to share information electronically. Acrobat lets you convert any document - including entire Web sites -into an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) file, with its original appearance preserved, and then viewing and printing on any system. Powerful markup tools make electronic review a snap, so you can collaborate more easily and productively than ever before.
Adobe Acrobat {U06.10}

Acrobat is an evolving software product, one whose capabilities have gone far beyond those originally those originally included.

Choosing Formats

We prefer to have students using the Web access hypertext files rather than either files developed to support a linear lecture strategy (PowerPoint) or those optimized for printing (Acrobat). If the student downloads files, why not download a folder that includes all of those files necessary to reproduce a lesson originally intended for Web delivery. Many organizations use Acrobat (i.e., .pdf-format) files, especially when review of texts is the key feature. The FastLane {U06.17} reporting system of the National Science Foundation, for example, uses .pdf files throughout. This makes sense in the context of how the NSF conducts its reviews and manages its business. Recent browser software has integrated Acrobat Reader as a helper application, making reading .pdf files on the Web simple.

For teaching, however, especially when one set of documents is intended to accommodate branched as well as linear learning styles, hypertext seems to be the best currently available route.



Downloading (Server to Client)

Browsers work by transferring files. Sometimes, especially in teaching situations, you may want to transfer a file to students for their use in some fashion less ephemeral than temporary storage in a browser's cache file. Web delivery {U06.16} is remarkably easy to accomplish, and makes use of the MIME extension system.

Compressed files, especially in the Macintosh platform, may use the .hqx file extension. This indicates they have been encoded for transfer across the Internet (in a format called BinHex.) In the Windows world, the .zip extension accomplishes a similar end. Once transferred to the client, the encoded file must be decoded before use. This usually is accomplished automatically with designated helper applications. Both application and document files may be transmitted via the Web using this "compress, package, transfer, unpackage, and decompress" strategy.

Web file transfers are alternatives to the older, but still widely used ftp strategy. Occasionally, an organization will choose to use the ftp (file transfer protocol) strategy instead of the http (hypertext transfer protocol) strategy. When accomplished through a browser, this nuance of process usually is not noticed by the user.

In spite of the enormous efforts, cross-platform problems tend to plague file transfers. Usually separate files must be available for Mac versus Windows. If students are using other platforms, those platforms may require yet other sets of files. Files which are strictly HTML are an easy transfer, but other files need special treatment. As a teacher, you may spend quite a bit of time accomplishing something as simple as providing all of your students with the same template file for a spreadsheet. Once you have local procedures down, however, this too becomes remarkably simpler than conventional techniques like having all students show up with floppies at a designated computer lab to make copies of a file.

Uploading (Client to Server)

If you are courageous, you can have students upload files to you. In the event you do have students upload files to your server, always use virus protection! Especially in colleges and high schools with student computer laboratories, pesky viruses may be transmitted innocently by students (see Chapter 18).

One way to receive files is to have students attach them to e-mails. Another strategy is to use server software that facilitates these transfers. WebSTAR software is one way to handle this.

Using the WebSTAR File Upload Plug-In
WebSTAR does not install the WebSTAR File Uploader Plug-In by default. Use the WebSTAR Server Suite Installer to install it. It does not require any additional RAM. The File Upload Plug-In will always allow uploading if there is a file named upload in a folder, and an appropriate HTML form. To use the WebSTAR File Upload Plug-In, you must create a upload file in each folder that will be display a listing. It's just a text file, named with a period followed by the word "upload."
WebSTAR File Upload Plug-In {U06.17}



Push versus Pull

Most Web transactions involve the client sending a message to a server, and the server responding by sending back one or several files. This is called pull technology. In push technology, a profile is established indicating the kind of information the user wants to see. This information is then pushed to the client. Push technologies include pointcasting, multicasting, and Webcasting. Advertisers, of course, are very interested in push technologies. Push technologies often are used on intranets.

Push technologies can be useful for teachers, especially when Web technologies are used to handle synchronous, multimedia intensive instruction. In teaching courses in plant pathology, James Partridge of UNL uses a multiframe format. One frame displays streaming video from a live classroom presentation. Another is used to share visuals such as in a PowerPoint presentation.



applet: an application written in the Java language intended for inclusion within a Web page.

compression; compressed file: file in which wasted space has been removed by using a computer application that replaces current bits and bytes with new ones. Formulas or algorithms allow duplicate or empty space removal, and also permit reconstruction of the original file identically (lossless compression) or nearly identically (lossy compression).

ftp (file transfer protocol): a procedure for transferring files from one computer to another.

helper application: program used by a browser to assist with some task or operation. For example, Navigator uses the helper application StuffIt Expander to translate and expand .hqx (dot hqx) files.

hot spot: an area of the screen which, when clicked, is expected to bring about some action such as moving to a different section of text, playing a movie, showing in image, etc. When the pointer (cursor) moves onto a hotspot, the shape of the cursor changes to that of a hand with a pointing finger.

http (hypertext transfer protocol): a procedure used by computers to transfer files from servers to clients (browsers). This is the principal procedure used on the Web.

hypermedia: multimedia linked so as to permit branching from one place to another based on the intent of the user (or programmer).

Kinko’s: commercial supplier of information handling services centering on multimedia production and especially duplication services.

MIME; Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension: standardized scheme that permits browser software to determine what to do with a file. The file is assigned an extension written as a few letters and a period or dot. Files ending in .html or .htm, for example, are interpreted as being tagged text. Files ending in .GIF are GIF image files, while those ending in .jpg or .jpeg are JPEG images. A file ending in .hqx has been encoded (in a format called BinHex 4.0) so that it can be transferred from computer to computer.

optical character recognition, OCR: a scheme for taking printed images as from typewriting, newspapers, and books, and converting those images of letters into digital text files usable by computers.

page: describes a hypertext file transmitted from server to client using the Web.

plug-in: dynamic code modules, native to a specific platform on which a browser runs, that enhance the capabilities of the browser.

shareware: software created as a public service and provided for testing after which, if used for substantial time (usually defined as a month), the user is honor bound to pay a small fee to the creator.

tag: in HTML, an instruction embedded within an ordinary text file that may be interpreted by browser software as an instruction.

WYSIWYG: (pronounced WIZ-ee-wig) software which provides a "what you see is what you get" medium for producing HTML text. Whatever appears on the design screen will appear the same when viewed.



Bloodsworth, J. G. (1993). Legibility of Print ( ED355497). Aiken, SC: University of South Carolina at Aiken.

Dillon, A., & Gabbard, R. (1998) Hypermedia as an educational technology: A review of the quantitative research literature on learner comprehension, control, and style, Rev. Educ. Rsch., 68, 322-349-.

Eaton, J. (1996). PNG graphics format gaining Web support. MacWeek, November 11, pp. 22–24.

Graham, I. S. (1996). The HTML Sourcebook (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

Morgan, M., Wandling, J., & Casselberry, R. (1996). Webmaster Expert Solutions. Indianapolis, IN:Que Corporation.



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